Celtis occidentalis , commonly known as the common hackberry , is a large deciduous tree native to North America. It is also known as the nettletree , sugarberry , beaverwood , northern hackberry , and American hackberry. The common hackberry is easily distinguished from elms and some other hackberries by its cork-like bark with wart-like protuberances. The leaves are distinctly asymmetrical and coarse-textured. It produces small fruits that turn orange-red to dark purple in the autumn , often staying on the trees for several months.
I picked one of the small golden fruits from the spiny shrub and popped it in my mouth. Its shade tolerance is greatly dependent on conditions. They generally grow to between 50 and 70 feet tall, though some have been known to reach over a hundred. Hackberry fruits are not true berries but drupes. The dissolvable mineral Hackberry tress feeding calcium carbonate, as is found in many seashells and limestone.
Jerry springer uncensored halloween. Common Uses
Decorative Outdoor Handrails. The berries are substituted in recipes where you would use a similar berry, such as in making breads or sauces. Also, make sure to account for the large size of this tree when mature and space them accordingly. Witches' broom fungal disease also attacks hackberry trees. Northern outliers are found in southern Quebec, western Ontario, southern Manitoba, and southeastern Wyoming. Hackberry trees Pink gingham twin sheets susceptible to Hackberry tress feeding of hackberry woolly aphids. Regular pruning is required for the hackberry tree, as weak growth may lead to branch breakage. Honey Locust Tree Facts. These trees also play host to the Snout butterfly Libytheana bachmanii which lays its eggs among the foliage. The best defense against it is to plant disease resistant varieties. These trees are deep-rooted and often used to bring erosion under control. Because the disease does not affect vigor, you may remove clusters on younger trees if Hackberry tress feeding desire.
However, few trees are hardier or longer lived than the netleaf hackberry.
- The hackberry tree Celtis occidentalis is a common deciduous tree with a few uncommon traits.
- Hackberry trees Celtis occidentalis belong to the elm family.
Hackberry is a tree with an elm-like form and is, in fact, related to the elm. It is a tree you will find in many parks in the United States. The mature bark is light gray, bumpy, and corky, while its small, berry-like fruit turns from orange-red to purple and is relished by birds.
The fruit will temporarily stain walks. Common Names : Common hackberry, sugarberry, nettle tree, beaverwood, northern hackberry. Description : Hackberry is planted as a street tree in midwestern cities because of its tolerance to a wide range of soil and moisture conditions. Northern outliers are found in southern Quebec, western Ontario, southern Manitoba, and southeastern Wyoming.
The range extends south from western Nebraska to northeastern Colorado and northwestern Texas, and then east to Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, with scattered occurrences in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. Hackberry grows naturally in moist bottomland soil but will grow rapidly in a variety of soil types, from moist, fertile soils to hot, dry, rocky locations under the full heat of the sun.
Hackberry is tolerant of highly alkaline soil , whereas Sugarberry is not. Hackberry is tolerant of wind, drought, salt, and pollution once established and is considered a moderately tough, urban-tolerant tree.
Skilled pruning is required several times during the first 15 years of life to prevent the formation of weak branch crotches and weak multiple trunks. However, branches may break out from the trunk if proper pruning and training are not conducted early in the life of the tree. Even slight injury to the trunk and branches can initiate extensive decay inside the tree. If you have this tree, plant it where it will be protected from mechanical injury. It's best for low-use areas such as along the edge of woods or in an open lawn, not along streets.
The tree is very susceptible to damage in an ice storm. One especially nice cultivar is the prairie pride common hackberry, a quick-growing tree with a uniform, upright, and compact crown. Pests : One common insect on the tree causes hackberry nipple gall. A pouch or gall forms on the lower leaf surface in response to feeding. There are sprays available if you care to reduce this cosmetic problem.
Scales of various types may be found on hackberry as well. These may be partially controlled with horticultural oil sprays. Diseases : Several fungi cause leaf spots on hackberry. The disease is worse during wet weather, but chemical controls are seldom needed. Witches broom is caused by a mite and powdery mildew.
The main symptom is clusters of twigs scattered throughout the tree crown. Prune out the clusters of twigs when practical. Powdery mildew may coat the leaves with white powder. The leaves may be uniformly coated or only in patches. Mistletoe is an effective colonizer of hackberry, which can kill a tree over a period of time.
It appears as evergreen masses several feet in diameter scattered about the crown. Share Flipboard Email. Steve Nix, is a natural resources consultant, who managed forestry and wildfire programs, and researched and wrote about forest resources.
Smith, Charmayne. The fruits are not just for forest animals though. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Scales Scales are wingless, pale-colored insects that feed on every area of the hackberry tree, including its bark, foliage and stems. The fruits are safe for animals, birds, and humans alike. It has 2 to 5-inch long, alternate leaves with unequal bases and tapered ends. Though they prefer high fertility and a pH of 6.
Hackberry tress feeding. Caring Hackberry Trees
Interesting Facts About the Hackberry Tree | Sciencing
The hackberry tree Celtis occidentalis is a common deciduous tree with a few uncommon traits. Because of its prevalence across the United States, the hackberry is known by many different names such as sugarberry, beaverwood and nettletree. The hackberry is a tolerant species that can grow in a range of environmental and soil conditions making it a useful tree for municipalities and private land owners across the country.
Many people mistake the hackberry for its cousin the American elm. Amateur arborists are not the only ones confused over the identification of hackberries; scientists too have had trouble definitively placing the genus of hackberry Celtis into the correct family.
Scientists once included Celtis species in the elm family Ulmaceae and then placed them into their own family called Celtidaceae, before they were placed in their current classification as a member of the hemp family Cannabaceae.
There are around 60 to 70 species of Celtis found in temperate regions around the world. Like the elm, the hackberry is often used as a shade tree in urban environments due to its drought tolerance and size.
Possessing a soft wood comparable to elm and white ash, the hackberry is not particularly valued for commercial purposes. While the hackberry is not an economically important tree, it is useful in areas around rivers to help prevent erosion and minimize risk from flooding. The hackberry is also amenable to bonsai cultivation. Rarely found in pure stands, the hackberry is usually found in mixed deciduous forests. It is not a strong competitor, but once established it can grow to heights of 30 to 50 feet, on average.
Its prime development conditions are in valley soils where it can grow to be over feet tall and can have a very fast growth rate. The hackberry produces small, pea-sized berries that change from light orange to dark purple in color when ripe in early fall.
The hackberry is a great tree to attract birds and other animals who love to feed off the fruits both in the tree and on the forest floor. In fact, the hackberry relies on animals to eat the fruits and disperse its seeds in order to reproduce. The fruits are not just for forest animals though. Humans can enjoy the small berries as well.
Though the fruit is quite thin and usually dry, the taste of the berries is said to be similar to dates. Native Americans used the hackberry as a source of food, for medicinal purposes, and for special ceremonies. The bark of the tree was boiled down and used medicinally to induce abortions, regulate menstrual cycles, and cure venereal diseases. The berries were often crushed and used to flavour foods, or mixed with corn and animal fats to make a thick porridge.