B o a swing arm-(PDF) A Carbon Fibre Swingarm Design Case Study | Frank Kienhofer - abwoodenwatches.com

Effective date : An electric motor driven cycle having a rear wheel, an electric motor configured to deliver power to the rear wheel, and a swing arm coupled between the electric motor and the rear wheel. It is emphasized that this abstract is provided to comply with the rules requiring an abstract which will allow a searcher or other reader to quickly ascertain the subject matter of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or the meaning of the claims. Field [].

B o a swing arm

B o a swing arm

B o a swing arm

B o a swing arm

Wwing Figure 14 shows s the booundary condditions on th B o a swing arm swingarm. The back end a of the electric motor extends outward through an opening in one frame member a. Thiis indicates thhe strength ofo the swinngarm is sufficcient. We understand what it means swnig be customer friendly. The rear suspension system typically includes a swing arm connecting the rear wheel to the frame and a shock absorber to dampen movement between the swing arm and the frame during operation. Verticall deflection 4. A shock absorber can be coupled between the swing arm and the frame to absorb the energy produced by sudden bumps in the road. The B o a swing arm motor driven cycle may also include a passenger seat and Hot lesbians kssing and rear foot pegs a and b. A steered tube extending upward from the center of the bifurcated member can be rotatably inserted through the frame with upper and lower bearings not shown. Alternatively, the frame can be a conventional tube design such as a diamond or cross frame.

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Swinging fork - the original version consisting of a pair B o a swing arm parallel pipes holding the rear axle at one end and pivoting at the other. A 24 or 26 Tooth Drivetrain offset transmission sprocket seing. Note: If you intend to use the lower plastic belt cover you will need to cut off the inner lip. We supply the complete swingarm modified for the FXR s. Julie Chamberlain. Line-boring the existing loops viz. Pre to Afm racing motorcycles called dragbikes will often use longer swingarms to keep their center of gravity as forward as possible, which reduces the tendency to wheelie at the start. The front section is machined from a soild chunk to make space for the stock undertail exhaust while having the strength to hold that large rear wheel while raising hell! The new member is the brace and its attaching struts. As is frequently said, "Chains are for racing Having a single mounting point B o a swing arm proper wheel alignment. Belts are for holding up your pants". Below drawing is just to show that items 13 and 24 must be left in l swingarm. Charlene E Hobbs.

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Log In Sign Up. Frank Kienhofer. Bevan Smith. June , in revised form and accepted?? June In this study, a carbon fibre swingarm was designed with the during cornering and the motorcycle weave mode stability are aim of minimising weight while maintaining stiffness.

The affected. The into how the motorcycle might respond. To this end, this prototype vertical stiffness is of an order of magnitude research presents the first step in the redesign of a Ducati greater than the suspension stiffness a deemed satisfactory swingarm using preliminary carbon fibre laminates. The minimum. The prototype carbon fibre measuring vertical and torsional deflections while being swingarm is 1.

A finite element FE model was of the swingarm was also developed to aid in further design developed which will be used to further reduce the weight of changes. Literature Review deflection. The study illustrates the superior stiffness to The motorcycle swingarm is a key component of the rear weight ratio of carbon fibre an important feature in its suspension of a motorcycle.

It connects the rear wheel of the growing use in automotive component manufacturing and motorcycle to the main chassis and it regulates the rear wheel- the importance of validating FE models using macro- road interactions via the spring and shock absorber1.

Two basic measurements e. The single-sided swingarm has the benefit of gradients. The downside is that due to the asymmetry, a twisting moment Additional keywords: Swingarm, carbon fibre, FEA, strain acts in the arm which does not exist in a double-sided measurements, ply overlap swingarm2.

To maintain rigidity for a single-sided swingarm, extra material may be required which increases the unsprung Nomenclaturea1 mass of the rear side of the motorcycle. The vertical stiffness can affect the motorcycle Fx lateral tyre force setup and produce unpredictable behaviour if not rigid g gravitational constant enough3. The aim is to maximise the vertical stiffness and G12 modulus of rigidity ensure it is considerably higher than the rear suspension spring m mass of the motorcycle stiffness.

The lateral and torsional stiffness affect the r radius of turn motorcycle response during cornering and the motorcycle Ry vertical reaction weave mode4. The weave mode is the side to side movement of t width of tyre or thickness of laminate the rear of the motorcycle caused by the roll and yaw motion of v longitudinal velocity of the motorcycle the motorcycle.

This initial step of designing the carbon fibre Abbreviations swingarm was to determine the stiffness characteristics and FE Finite Element compare them with values obtained from other research.

Introduction Armentani, Fusco and Pirozzi5 studied the stiffness values The stiffness of a motorcycle swingarm plays a critical role in of three aluminium double-sided swingarms by carrying out the response and stability of the motorcycle: the response time both experimental tests and FEA.

They stated that the main difficulty in designing the swingarm is to obtain the right a balance between the flexional lateral and torsional stiffness. Lecturer, Academic Development Unit, University of the Loads acting on the rear wheel during cornering were defined Witwatersrand as follows.

When viewed from the rear of the motorcycle along bevan. In realitty however, due d to the thickkness the literature. Thhey claimed thatt to characterise the swingarm s it iss important too look at the torsional stifffness. The stifffer the swinga garm, the quicker the responnse is durinng cornering.

Risitano et al.. Cossalter, C Loot and Masssaro4 studied d the effectt the swinngarm has on the weave moode stability of o a cc scoooter. The T actual ressultant force has componeents acting paarallel Lake, L Thomass and William ms7 state that it is obviouss that and perpendiculaar to the whheel plane.

The T perpendiicular increeasing swingaarm torsionall stiffness inccreases the weave w comp ponent will ggenerate bothh a lateral forrce and a mooment mod de stability but b asked w what are acceeptable valuees of abouut the longituddinal axis. Foor a motorcyccle with a maass of swinngarm torsion nal stiffness?? Sharp8 claimed a valuue of kg, k the momeent was calcuulated by Arm mentani et al.

The T torsional loading was measured m as shown s in Figuure 3. Therre was no spaacer and spinndle inserted between b the wwheel Armmentani et al..

By appplying betw ween L Lake et al. By reported torsional stiffness valuues on contem mporary swinngarm applyying the loadss in this mannner, torsional stiffness valuues of desiggns are not consistent. The L Leyni Chain Load cell Test Rig is a duraability rig whhich consists of o a rotating drum with a mm hhigh step.

Thee rear wheel of o a motorcyccle is mounted on a drrum and as the t drum rottates it appliees an impu ulse load to thhe wheel every time the sttep passes. D During the cyclic c loadingg, the initial static s load duee to the driveer and passeenger is N and a maxximum dynam mic applied loaading of N occurss when the step s impacts thet wheel. Inn this studyy, vertical looads similar in i magnitudee to those appplied Bracket durinng the Leyni T Test have beenn used.

Although A mateerials that are light and havee high strength th and Dial gauge e rigid dity have beenn used for swinngarms such as a aluminium and Strain S gauges magn nesium alloy, carbon fibrre composite has the beneefit of Figu ure 5: Test rig showingg various co omponents used allowwing the desiggner to modifyy the material characteristiccs and g testing during strucctural stiffnesss2 and has a higher h stiffness to weight raatio Vertical loading swinngarms using ccomposite maaterials.

Airold di et al. Althouggh the a reedesign of a single-sided swingarm using u carbon fibre figurre shows the load l is being applied in the horizontal plane, p comp posite2. The torsional, lateral and vertical deflection ns and masss by range of loads based on thhe Leyni Tesst applied too the investigating the stacking seequences of the plies. Strains at eight Hond da CRF uusing carbon fibre f epoxy composite mouulded posittions on the swingarm s disscussed later were measurred at in metal m inserts The veertical deflecttion at the wheelw The T literature shows that thhere is an incconsistent rannge of mouunt was measured using a diial gauge.

Defleections and strains were measured w while vertiical and torsiional loads werew applied to the swinngarm mounted on the teest rig Figuree 5. Although h the forces aacting on thhe swingarm aare important from a structtural point of vview, Diall gauge at the wheel mount the aim a in this stuudy was not to load the sw wingarm to fa failure but to t obtain stiffnness and strainn curves.

Torsiona al loading The test rig was modified m in orrder to apply a torsional looad to the swingarm. Due D to the jack applying a force a distaance away fro om the longituudinal axis of the swing garm, the efffect is that a force and coouple mom ment act at thee wheel mounnt Figure 8.

The magnituude of the moments m applied to the swiingarm was baased on Risitaano et al. Deflectioons were meassured at the wheel w mount aand at Figu ure Rosette strain gauuge the position p of loaad applicationn Figure 8. The T two defleection meassurements alllowed for caalculating thee rotational angle based on the mom ment. Methodo ology: FE m model To develop d the FE model, it w was necessaryy to first deterrmine the various v zones on the swinggarm and the type of layupp that 3.

Position of strain gauges g made up each zone. The smaller zones z The longitudinall gauge direection was aligned withh the with slight differences d in layup would be included in i the swinngarm longituddinal directionn Figure 11 and the transsverse major layup surrounding itit.

Overlap occcurs mainly in i the corners where two differeent layups meeet and due to t the complexity ofo the swingarrm, the overlap p was disregaarded. The aim of the simulaation was to o get an ovverall impression ofo the effects of the loadin ngs and the aiim of leaving out th he inserts wass to simplify the FE model. For the rocker r arm, revolute r jointts were used and for the load Figu ure Swing garm showin ng the alumin nium inserts appliication point,, forces and moments weere applied too the surfaace of the wheeel mount Figgure The apprroximate thick kness, t,of eacch ply is alsso given.

Vertical Testing resullts. Figure 13 shows the FE F model of sw wingarm incluuding The FE model was w assumed tto be linear and a during veertical the rocker r arm. Figu ure FE model of the swingarm s inc cluding the ro ocker The constraints onn the FE model were based d on the constrraints placeed on the swiingarm when mounted to the t test rig.

F Figure 14 shows s the booundary condditions on th he swingarm. The swinngarm has six constraint pooints includinng the rocker arm and one load appplication poiint at the wheel w mount.. The Figu ure Vertic cal loading off FE model of o swingarm consstraints are maade up of the pivot points and a the rockerr arm assemmbly.

The piivot points arre where the swingarm rootates 3. Torsiona al Testing abouut an axle whhich simulates being conn nected to the main Simiilarly, only thet maximum m moment of o Nm with chassis. The sw wingarm is alsoa connecteed to rigid links correesponding forrce was appliied to the FE model to sim mulate simuulating the roccker arm susppension. The load is appliied at torsional loading Figure L Linear curves were generateed for the wheel w mount. Once obbtained, comp parisons coulld be Torsional T stiffnness Dessignation madee with stiffnesss values founnd in the literaature.

However, this valuee was Duccati Carbon Fibre this studdy conccluded to be ssufficiently high h to not neegatively influuence Risitano et al. SM M Risitanno et al. Verticall deflection 4. Strain measuremen m nts The applied loadss simulated tyypical loads: the t aim was notn to applyy loads to failure.

The strain measurements m gave an in ndication of thhe following: 1 where thee maximum sttrains occuur 2 the relattive strain vallues and 3 whether w the sttrains are tensile or comppressive.

The T number indicates the measuremen nt position annd the ure Trans Figu sverse strainn measured during torssional letterrs L and T indicate longgitudinal and transversal sstrain loadin ng respeectively.

Figure F 25 show ws the normallised strain on n the top arm which w indiccates that Position 6 is a lim miting positioon during torssional loadiing i. Major challenges weree encountered d in validatinng the Pos 4 transversee FE model m of the carbon fibre swingarm.

The followinng therefore presents p the reesults usingg this modelling technique. Pos5 longitudin nal Pos 5 transve erse 5. The T reason foor the Figu ure Top arm a showingg longitudina al and transvverse largee difference inn the torsionall deflections is i explained bby the directtions of Posittions 4 and 5 FE model m not inncluding ply overlap.

Pos 6 transverse 5. Strains The experimental tests showed that the higheest strains occcurred Pos 6 long gitudinal on thhe top arm P Positions 4 annd 5 Figure 26 2 and Posittion 6 Figuure The following theerefore compaares the FE sttrains on thhe top arm w with the expeerimental resu ults during veertical loadiing. Three poositions on thee top arm werre analysed inn their respeective longitudinal and trannsverse directions.

This large differennce is attrib buted to the laack of ply oveerlap in the FE E model in thiss area and due to the high strain gradientg where the strainn was meassured. In an atttempt to simuulate the ply overlap, o extraa plies weree added to thhe area surrouunding Positio on 4.

A 24 tooth sprocket replaces the OEM belt drive pulley on the models. Please note that there are no prohibitions of the forward point of attachment of the brace to the swing-arm, the separation angle of the brace relative to the arm, the number or size of vertical struts connecting them, or the width across the brace. Install new e-clip in axle groove. PLEASE go through the checklist below and select ALL the options you prefer to get a price on a fat tire conversion kit then hit the update price button to see your price. Chain drive Belt drive Shaft drive. The Cleve Block bushings have to go and we use the to Dresser swingarm with spherical bearings.

B o a swing arm

B o a swing arm. Suggested Project Book

Last i checked, the findings above all held true. For those who wish to seek out the real Swing-Arm mechanism, here are some photographs to help you with the process:. Other shapes usually mean a standard linear-motion pickup is being used.

The white CDM-2 mechanism is shown with a foam shipping pad in the semicircular cutout in which the laser pickup assembly close to the platter normally swings freely. The important items to focus upon are the shape and size of the semicircular cutout, the appearance of the laser pickup assembly, and the fine points of appearance of the disc platters compared to other platters, not shown here, that one will see.

All it takes is opening the tray, and peering inside. Top cover removal is even better, though it must be noted that other large loading mechanism parts will obscure the views denoted in these two pictures.

Your rear axle and axle nut. You must specify the number of teeth desired in your rear wheel sprocket. A 51 tooth rear sprocket with a 24 tooth countershaft pre models gives the exact ratio as does the FL stock gearing OEM: 32 transmission, 68 rear sprocket. Complete Chain Drive Systems Available.

A 24 or 26 Tooth Drivetrain offset transmission sprocket 2. Two Chromed Chain Adjusters. Your rear axle and nut modified for chain drive. A new Steel 51 Tooth, 53 Tooth, or 55 Tooth final drive rear sprocket 7. Your swingarm modified for 2" adjustment chain drive operation and completely refinished Black 8. Your swingarm modified for 2" adjustment chain drive operation and completely refinished Black or Silver. We secure the custom 51 or 53 and 55 tooth sprockets with five , psi Grade 9 bolts and Grade 9 washers, torqued and Loctited to the billet cush hub, before they leave RB Racing.

Individual Prices and Options. Pre and and later Swingarm Modification. OEM swingarms have a thick gloss back powder coating covering the stampings. Customers send us their swingarms with the front bearings left in place and their rear axle and axle nut for modification. We take customer arms, precision cut and remove the oem adjusters and remove any oem weld splatter. New CNC machined billet ends, allowing two inches of adjustment, are placed in a precision fixture and welded to the arm retaining the stock shock attachment location.

Pre to No Cush Drive. Pictured above is a pre FLT Swingarm. In Harley started put a bolt-on cush drives on their touring final drive pulleys. For models simply ditch the cush drive and go sprocket direct. For Pre models the sprocket can be bolted directly to the hub. Spherical Bearings were first installed on models. Left to right: Left Pre ; Right On models the cush drive is removable and the sprocket can bolt directly to the wheel. A 51 tooth rear sprocket is a stock gear ratio.

The ZVX3 chain has a width of approximately 1", the same as the and later belts. The final drive belt can be removed by placing a scissors jack under the bike and removing the left side pivot assembly. You don't have to cut the expensive belt. You do have to be careful not to nick the belt as this could cause premature failure should it be used again.

Finishing Options and Methodology. To refinish a Harley Swingarm is not a simple spray can operation. The coatings that Harley puts on their swingarms are a durable hard coat powdercoat paint which is not easily removed. These must be completely stripped and hand finished prior to refinishing in gloss black powdercoat. Stripped arm ready for finishing pictured above. Don't ask us to chrome your swingarm as putting a hollow part with bearings and untreated inner surfaces in acid and chrome tanks is a very bad idea.

Putting a Swingarm on a Evo Dresser. Bike is turbocharged. You must also install a late model brake caliper.

The shocks are in the same plane and location as stock. The swingarm uses all Twin Cam internals. This was done in a silver powder coat. If you are building a big inch FXR the stock swingarm is simply not strong enough. Here is a CVO2 swingarm off of our FXR Turbo with a red arrow showing the weak point, among others, in the stock FXR swingarm when used in high horsepower situations like hp turbos or built hp " motors.

The Cleve Block bushings have to go and we use the to Dresser swingarm with spherical bearings. The later model swingarms are twice as strong and we convert them to chain drive with 2" of adjustment.

For high hp it does no good just to upgrade the bearings in a stock FXR swingarm. Go straight to a late model rear wheel with the 25mm rear axle and upgrade your caliper at the same time. You can run a rear tire upgrading from the OEM size, using a 16" or 17" rim. If you choose to do this be aware you must change your rear wheel, axle, and brake assembly for the 25mm rear axle and later model brake calipers. FXR and DResser swingarms have different shock locations. FXR Turbo Swingarm Oil Bag Transmission.

We supply the complete swingarm modified for the FXR transmission. Also works also for and earlier EVO Dressers wanting to put on a stronger swingarm. It has 2" of adjustment for the chain drive and uses a 25mm late model axle for a 17" Dyna rear wheel. A late model 4 piston CVO Dresser caliper provides the rear stopping power. We are using a Dresser Oilbag 5 speed transmission with Jims Fat5 gears.

We raised the shock mounts to use with 14" shocks to get 7.

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B o a swing arm

B o a swing arm

B o a swing arm